Target UPSC- The Lead You Need
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Channel to help UPSC students with right direction and guidance by SELECTED STUDENTS (IAS ,IPS,IRS ).

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πŸ”₯Global Infrastructure Facility (GIF)

-Launched by
: It is a G20 initiative established in 2014.

-Purpose: It is a global collaboration platform that integrates efforts to boost private investment in sustainable, quality infrastructure projects in developing countries and emerging markets.

-The facility enables collective action among a wide range of partners – including donors, development finance institutions, country governments, with inputs of private sector investors and financiers – to leverage resources and expertise and find solutions to build bankable pipelines of infrastructure projects that attract private financing.
Competition Commission of India:
- a statutory body of the Government of India established in 2003.

-The commission is responsible for enforcing the Competition Act,2002 throughout India and to prevent activities that have an appreciable adverse effect on competition in India.

- consists of a Chairperson and 6 Members appointed by the Central Government.

-The Commission aims to eliminate practices having adverse effects on competition, promote and sustain competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India.

-The Commission is also required to give opinion on competition issues on a reference received from a statutory authority established under any law.

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Positive and Negative Liberty

-Negative liberty seeks to define and defend an area in which the individual would be inviolable in which he or she could β€˜do, be or become’ whatever he or she wished to β€˜do, be or become’.

-Negative liberty is the absence of obstacles, barriers or constraints.One has negative liberty to the extent that actions are available to one in this negative sense.

-Positive liberty is the possibility of acting β€” or the fact of acting β€” in such a way as to take control of one's life and realize one's fundamental purposes.

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πŸ”΄National Gene Bank:

-established in 1996.It aims to preserve the seeds of Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) for future generations in the form of seeds, genomic resources, pollen etc.

-It is hosted by National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi.

-It can store different crop groups such as cereals, millets, medicinal and aromatic plants and narcotics, etc.

-The NGB has four kinds of facilities, namely, Seed Gene bank (- 18Β°C), Cryogene bank (-170Β°C to -196Β°C), In vitro Gene bank (25Β°C), and Field Gene bank, to cater to long-term as well as medium-term conservation

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πŸ”₯Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement

-It is a kind of free trade pact which covers negotiation on the trade in services and investment, and other areas of economic partnership. It may even consider negotiation on areas such as trade facilitation and customs cooperation, competition, and Intellectual Property Rights.

-Partnership agreements or cooperation agreements are more comprehensive than Free Trade Agreements.

-CEPA also looks into the regulatory aspect of trade and encompasses an agreement covering the regulatory issues.

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What is Population Momentum?

Population momentum refers to a situation, where a large population of women of reproductive age will fuel population growth over the next generation, even if each woman has fewer children than previous generations did i.e. low fertility rate. It explains why the number of children in the world will not decline as rapidly as the fertility rate.
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What is Structural Violence?

Structural violence refers to a form of violence wherein a social structure or social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs.

This concept was introduced by Johan Galtung in 1969. It refers to a form of violence wherein some social structure or social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs.


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πŸ”ΊDoctrine of Proportionality

-Doctrine of proportionality finds its place in the Administrative Law and is used at the stage of Judicial Review.

-The doctrine asserts that there must be a reasonable connection between the desired result and the measures taken to reach that goal.

-The proportionality test provides a tool to determine the constitutionality of an action that limits a fundamental right. It requires that a rights-limiting measure should be pursuing a proper purpose, through means that are suitable and necessary for achieving that purpose and that there is a proper balance between the importance of achieving that purpose and the harm caused by limiting the right.

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Veblen Goods

-Veblen goods are considered exceptions to the law of demand.Law of Demand states that the demand for a good must decrease as its price increases, and vice versa. However, Veblen goods are goods for which demand increases when its price increases, and vice versa.

-Luxury goods like diamonds, whose appeal depends on their exorbitant price, are an example of Veblen goods.

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πŸ”₯-Fiat Money

Fiat money is government-issued currency that is not backed by a physical commodity, such as gold or silver, but rather by the government that issued it.
Currency notes and coins are called fiat money. They do not have intrinsic value like a gold or silver coin.

πŸ”₯-Fiduciary Money

Fiduciary money refers to money backed up by trust between the payer and payee.
Example: Cheques are fiduciary money as these are accepted as a means of payment on the basis of trust but not on the basis of any order of the government.

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πŸ”₯What is Escape Clause?

The Escape Clause is mentioned under Section 4(2) of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management(FRBM) Act.

The Escape Clause allows the Center to breach its fiscal deficit target by 0.5 percentage points in exceptional circumstances.

These exceptional circumstances include:
a) National security
b) war
c) National calamity
d) Collapse of agriculture
e) Structural reforms and
f) Decline in real output growth of a quarter by at least three percentage points below the average of the previous four quarters.

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πŸ”₯What is Flash Drought?

-Flash drought refers to a severe drought kind of situation that develops very rapidly (not slowly
). Unlike conventional droughts that develop over months, flash droughts intensify very quickly.

-It is widely believed that such flash droughts will occur during the summer months as was reported in the Western countries, mostly driven by heat waves and very high temperature.
But it is found that in India, 82 percent of Flash drought events happen during the monsoon period.

-The scientists found that when there is a monsoon break of 15-20 days, temperatures shoot up. This combination of monsoon breaks and increased temperatures depletes soil moisture very quickly, precipitating a very severe drought.

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What is Aquaponics?

● Aquaponics is a form of agriculture that combines raising fish in tanks (aquaculture) with soilless plant culture (hydroponics).

● Aquaponics is an emerging technique in which both fish as well as plants complement each other to sustain and grow.

● The fish waste provides fertiliser for growing plants. The plants absorb nutrients and filter the water, which is used to replenish the fish tank.

● Benefits of Aquaponics:
β—‹ Extremely water efficient.
β—‹ Does not require soil.
β—‹ Does not use fertilisers or chemical pesticides.
β—‹ Reduces pressure on land and cuts down operational costs among others.
β—‹ It does not require farmland with fertile soil.
β—‹ It provides Food Security and a better source of income for farmers

● Disadvantages: Set up cost in aquaponics is high. Normally an average investment of at least Rs 2.5-3 crore per acre
Global Methane Initiative(GMI)

● It is an international public-private initiative launched in 2004.It aims to achieve a global reduction in anthropogenic methane emission through a partnership among developed and developing countries having economies in transition.

● Members: It is a voluntary Government and an informal international partnership having members from 45 countries including the United States and Canada. India has been one of the members since its inception.

● Secretariat: It is currently hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

● India has taken up Vice-Chairmanship for the first time in the Steering Leadership along with the USA.

● The Chairperson of the Steering Leadership is from Canada.

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Productivity and Consistency - Impact

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