Reflexiones e Irreflexiones
12 subscribers
524 links
Canal del blog 'Reflexiones e Irreflexiones' http://fernand0.blogalia.com/
Download Telegram
... ved every two years or so, while increasing in density ‘50-million fold’. Third, the explosion in computational power has given us the ability to process what we store. Fourth, digital information has almost no marginal cost of reproduction— it can be replicated millions of times very cheaply. Together, these factors explain why the transition from a print-based information system to a digital one has yielded such an explosion of data."
A veces se usa de manera intercambiable código y algoritmos, cuando no son estrictamente lo mismo. La idea de algoritmo se refiere a la descripción de cualquier aproximación matemática al razonamiento, cálculo y manipulación de datos. Se trata de un conjunto de instrucciones para realizar una tarea. Pero no necesita estar codificado para que lo maneje una máquina. Cuando hablamos de tecnología digital el algoritmo es la fórmula y el código es la expresión del algoritmo en un lenguaje de programación.

Code and algorithms are often referred to interchangeably, but they’re not strictly the same thing.The word algorithm can be traced back to the ninth-century Persian mathematician Abd’Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mūsa ̄ Al-Khwar̄ izmī. The translation of his name, algorismus, came to describe any mathematical approach to reasoning, calculating, and manipulating data.8 Today, the word algorithm describes a set of instructions for performing a task or solving a problem. It need not be written in computer code.
...
When we talk about digital technology, the algorithm is the formula and the code is the expression of that formula in programming language.
"Code and algorithms are often referred to interchangeably, but they’re not strictly the same thing.The word algorithm can be traced back to the ninth-century Persian mathematician Abd’Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mūsa ̄ Al-Khwar̄ izmī. The translation of his name, algorismus, came to describe any mathematical approach to reasoning, calculating, and manipulating data.8 Today, the word algorithm describes a set of instructions for performing a task or solving a problem. It need not be written in computer code.
...
When we talk about digital technology, the algorithm is the formula and the code is the expression of that formula in programming language."
Sobre los protocolos en las actividades humanas. ¿Qué sucede si nuestro médico ignora las pruebas y se deja llevar por su experiencia o intuición y el resultado es dañino para nosotros?

After a while you are attended by a human doctor, Dr Smith, who inspects your leg and tells you that it needs to be operated upon immediately. Concerned by this response, you ask whether that course of action is consistent with the X-ray results. Dr Smith replies that he has not looked at the X-ray results; he does not need to. He’s an experienced physician and has seen this a hundred times before—the leg needs to be operated on immediately. The surgery takes place, and it turns out that Dr Smith was wrong: there was no need to operate after all. This would have been clearly visible from the X-ray results. Unfortunately, because of complications arising from the surgery, you suffer long-term damage to the limb. You sue the hospital. In court, unsurprisingly, the judge finds that Dr Smith acted negligently by not looking at the scans— not because the law contains a rule specifying that doctors must always look at X-ray results, but because the law lays down a standard that doctors must exercise reasonable care or they will be negligent. It was negligent, the court finds, to refuse even to look at the scans.
"After a while you are attended by a human doctor, Dr Smith, who inspects your leg and tells you that it needs to be operated upon immediately. Concerned by this response, you ask whether that course of action is consistent with the X-ray results. Dr Smith replies that he has not looked at the X-ray results; he does not need to. He’s an experienced physician and has seen this a hundred times before—the leg needs to be operated on immediately. The surgery takes place, and it turns out that Dr Smith was wrong: there
Text is longer
Medios sociales e inteligencia colectiva, ¿hemos fracasado?
Muchos creímos que una democratización de la posibilidad de publicar redundaría en más visiones que, además, serían mejores. Yo sigo pensando que es bueno que todo el mundo tenga acceso a la publicación y, por lo tanto, a tener una audiencia para sus ideas, pero también creo que eso nos impone una responsabilidad: estar atentos, filtrar, no dejarnos llevar…
En Algorithmic Amplification for Collective Intelligence [0] publicaron un texto bastante interesante sobre el tema, con una versión más positiva de lo habitual. El subtítulo es: los medios sociales prometieron una nueva esfera pública democratizada, y digital. Los algoritmos nos pueden ayudar a alcanzarla.

Social media promised a new, democratized, and digital public sphere. Algorithms can help us get there.
"Social media promised a new, democratized, and digital public sphere. Algorithms can help us get there."
Sin embargo, empieza hablando de cómo hemos pasado de estas tecnologías liberadoras a la era de la post-verdad: veíamos las herramientas como revolucionarias, facilitando la comunicación entre personas a nivel planetario.

Just about five years after their respective releases, Facebook and Twitter were touted as literally revolutionary tools. Through its enabling of cheap, fast, and easy peer-to-peer communication at scale,...
"Just about five years after their respective releases, Facebook and Twitter were touted as literally revolutionary tools. Through its enabling of cheap, fast, and easy peer-to-peer communication at scale,..."
Sin embargo, lo que estamos viendo es un incremento de lo que nos hace pensar que la gente ha perdido su capacidad de razonar, debatir y conseguir tener creencias ajustadas a la realidad.

Rather than ushering in the era of the more informed citizen, the increasing use of social media had coincided with events that seemed to fundamentally question people’s ability to reason, deliberate, and form accurate beliefs.
"Rather than ushering in the era of the more informed citizen, the increasing use of social media had coincided with events that seemed to fundamentally question people’s ability to reason, deliberate, and form accurate beliefs."
No está claro que la única responsabilidad sea de los medios sociales, por supuesto.
Pero hay que entender el papel que desempeñan los algoritmos en la esfera pública en la red, empezando por la clara sobreabundancia de información.

In other words, we now find ourselves faced with information overload. It is impossible for people to engage with all information available to them.
"In other words, we now find ourselves faced with information overload. It is impossible for people to engage with all information available to them."
Esto ha hecho que en muchas ocasiones nos veamos obligados a confiar en los algoritmos, que nos permitirían manejar mejor esta sobrecarga. Estos algoritmos se habrían hecho, en cierto modo, imprescindibles para poder enfrentarnos a todo el contenido disponible.

n response to this information overload, we have come to rely on content-curating algorithms such as those underlying recommender systems on social media ...
...
These algorithms provide a truly indispensable service.
"n response to this information overload, we have come to rely on content-curating algorithms such as those underlying recommender systems on social media ...
...
These algorithms provide a truly indispensable service."
Pero claro, estos algoritmos no son neutros, y promueven ciertos tipos de contenido frente a otros, de forma que juchas veces es inocuo, aunque que no siempre.

Other the other hand, the algorithms we rely on to navigate through the overload of information online are not neutral. By design, they tend to promote some types of content while suppressing others —a process sometimes referred to as algorithmic amplification.[44,45] While this is innocuous or beneficial in many instances,...
"Other the other hand, the algo ...
... ithms we rely on to navigate through the overload of information online are not neutral. By design, they tend to promote some types of content while suppressing others —a process sometimes referred to as algorithmic amplification.[44,45] While this is innocuous or beneficial in many instances,..."
No sólo eso, sino que en muchos casos este diseño es paternalista, puesto que trata de indicarnos qué es lo relevante para nosotros, desde el punto de vista de sus diseñadores. Y el objetivo casi siempre es económico (que las plataformas ganen más), así que los algoritmos tratan de obtener esos resultados.

As currently implemented, algorithmic amplification is inherently paternalistic. The underlying algorithms are designed by platform engineers who get to decide what it means for some content to be “relevant” to some user. Since most platforms have commercial goals to retain their users and maximize revenue, they are incentivized to design algorithms that amplify content in ways that achieve these goals.
"As currently implemented, algorithmic amplification is inherently paternalistic. The underlying algorithms are designed by platform engineers who get to decide what it means for some content to be “relevant” to some user. Since most platforms have commercial goals to retain their users and maximize revenue, they are incentivized to design algorithms that amplify content in ways that achieve these goals."
Por lo tanto, algo habría que hacer para que las plataformas reflejen mejor los intereses de sus usuarios y esto pasaría por hacer algunos cambios en la forma de interactuar, mejorar las competencias digitales de la gente o hacer que las plataformas se comporten de manera más transparente.

The basic idea is that by making small changes in the user interface, supporting users’ digital competencies, or by regulating platforms to be more transparent, people might be able to have more informative and less misleading experiences online
"The basic idea is that by making small changes in the user interface, supporting users’ digital competencies, or by regulating platforms to be more transparent, people might be able to have more informative and less misleading experiences online"
Algunos ejemplos de esto son los verificadores externos (factchecks) y las notas de las comunidades (community notes). Pero es inevitable que estas medidas se centren en una parte del problema, sin poder ayudar al usuario en todas sus necesidades.

All of these efforts are valuable and worthwhile. They help people get the most out of access to information online without encroaching on their agency. However, these existing efforts have tended to focus on just part of the picture.
"All of these efforts are valuable and worthwhile. They help people get the most out of access to information online without encroaching on their agency. However, these existing efforts have tended to focus on just part of the picture."
También podríamos ver estos algorimos y su amplificación como una oportunidad: que nos ayuden a navegar pero que no estén optimizados para engancharnos a nada, ¿sería esto posible?

What if we viewed algorithmic ranking and amplification not as a threat to be mitigated, but as an opportunity? We need algorithms to help us navigate information online, but those algorithms need not optimize for engagement. Is it possible to engineer a better online public sphere by changing the algorithms that mediate it?
"What if we viewed algorithmic ranking and amplification not as a threat to be mitigated, but as an opportunity? We need algorithms to help us navigate information online, but those algorithms need not optimize for engagement. Is it possible to engineer a better online public sphere by changing the algorithms that mediate it?"
Ya hay algunas iniciativas, por ejemplo en Spotiy saben que si los algoritmos se basan solo en las relaciones con el contenido, lo que aparece es que los ricos se hacen más ricos y los nuevos participantes tienen dificilísimo poder despertar el interés de nadie. Así que añaden parámetros que contrarestan este efecto
Text is longer
Hola mundo
Se sabe cuándo empiezan las cosas, pero no cuando terminan.
Después de 22 años con el Reflexiones e Irreflexiones [0] no sabía si cerrarla, seguir escribiendo allí o hacer algún cambio.
Finalmente (o de momento, quién sabe) he pensado en abrir este sitio, asociado a mi dominio (lo único que nos pertenece en internet, visto lo visto, y no del todo son los identificadores).
Tengo que tomar algunas decisiones (¿copiar el contenido de allá? no creo que tenga sentido), pero bienvenidos a su/nuestra casa digital.
También habrá que adaptar las plantillas, ver qué ponemos y qué quitamos…
[0] Reflexiones e Irreflexiones
http://fernand0.blogalia.com/
Automatización: contenido automático, publicidad programada y tú ¿también eres un robot?
Uno de los miedos que tenemos a la tecnología y a la inteligencia artificial (como si fuera la única/última tecnología disponible para ello) es la posibilidad de quedarnos sin trabajo.
Siendo esto posible, lo cierto es que no hay mucho que podamos hacer, en mi opinión: los productores de lo que sea eliminarán al humano y colocarán una máquina siempre que eso sea rentable.
Pero sí que hay algo que podríamos y deberíamos estar haciendo: dejar de apoyar sitios que generan información automática (o semiautomática, que como decíamos arriba muchos sitios ya llevan años alimentando sus informaciones/contenidos a través de copias o inspiraciones más o menos automatizadas; no solo eso, han convencido/engañado a Google para que salgan bien parados en los resultados del buscador).
La tecnología nos podrá sustituir, pero seremos nosotros los que estaremos ayudando a que eso pase con nuestras acciones: compras, lecturas, …
En Junk websites filled with AI-generated text are pulling in money from programmatic ads [0] hablaban de esto y me pareció interesante.
Empieza diciendo que hay muchos sitios que ya son generados por inteligencia artificial y que hay empresas financiándolos con su prespuesto de publicidad.

People are using AI chatbots to fill junk websites with AI-generated text that attracts paying advertisers, according to a new report from the media research organization NewsGuard that was shared exclusively with MIT Technology Review.
"People are using AI chatbots to fill junk websites with AI-generated text that attracts paying advertisers, according to a new report from the media research organization NewsGuard that was shared exclusively with MIT Technology Review."
Esto sucede porque la propia contratación de publicidad está automatizada, lo que significa que nadie mira donde sale ni si esos sitios son mejores o peores.

Most companies that advertise online automatically bid on spots to run those ads through a practice called “programmatic advertising.”
"Most companies that advertise online automatically bid on spots to run those ads through a practice called “programmatic advertising.”"
También, no tengan duda eso es así porque mucha gente visita estos sitios en busca de recomendaciones, consejos o lo que sea: todo tiene sentido económico.
Y allí es a donde yo quería ir cuando hablaba de que somos agentes necesarios de este sistema.

Algorithms place ads on various websites according to complex calculations that optimize the number of eyeballs an ad might attract from the company’s target audience.
"Algorithms place ads on various websites according to complex calculations that optimize the number of eyeballs an ad might attract from the company’s target audience."
Luego hay un poco de publicidad de un producto que supuestamente nos ayudaría a evitar eso, pero el diagnóstico es lo que me interesa.
Por supuesto, también hay quien usa esto para generar desinformación, y bulos.

... most of the AI-generated sites are considered “low quality” but “do not spread misinformation.” But the economic dynamic of content farms already incentivizes the creation of clickbaity websites that are often riddled with junk and misinformation, and now that AIs can do the same thing on a bigger scale, it threatens to exacerbate the misinformation problem.
"... most of the AI-generated sites are considered “low quality” but “do not spread misinformation.” But the economic dynamic of content farms already incentivizes the creation of clickbaity websites that are often riddled with junk and misinformation, and now that AIs can do the same thing on a bigger scale, it threatens to exacerbate the misinformation problem."
¿La solución?
Tan fácil y tan difícil como que naveguemos conscientemente, paguemos por servicios de suficiente calidad y sigamos recomendaciones de personas y no de sitios de los que no podemos saber si fiarnos o no.
Como bo
la extra, una lectura reciente, How Google is killing independent sites like ours [1] sobre un tema del que ya habíamos hablado y que muestra cómo el problema ya venía de antes.
[0] Junk websites filled with AI-generated text are pulling in money from programmatic ads
https://www.technologyreview.com/2023/06/26/1075504/junk-websites-filled-with-ai-generated-text-are-pulling-in-money-from-programmatic-ads/
[1] How Google is killing independent sites like ours
https://housefresh.com/david-vs-digital-goliaths/
Future Politics. Algunos párrafos que señalé mientras lo leía.
A principios de año leí el libro Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech [0] de Jamie Susskind [1] y me gustó bastante. Con lo fácil que es encontrar libros que dicen todo lo que va a ir mal con la tecnología este libro trata de mostrarnos algunas ideas positivas (y también qué cosas pueden ir mal o están yendo mal).
No me veo con fuerzas para comentarlo, pero sí que señalé algunos párrafos (sin intención de ser completista ni nada de eso) y voy a ponerlos por aquí.
Sobre dónde se realiza la computación (el trabajo informático) hoy en día y las consecuencias. La potencia de cálculo está disponible para cualquier dispositivo (no hace falta que sea especialmente pontente) y además las máquinas no aprenderán solo de sus ‘propias’ experiencias, sino que forman parte de un enjambre informacional:

A final point about machine learning: it used to be that the computing power that fuelled any particular system was physically present within the system in question. The most powerful digital devices literally contained the processors that made them run. The arrival of cloud computing in the last decade or so has meant that the computing power no longer needs to be located within the device itself: like Apple’s Siri it can be accessed over the internet. This has major implications for the integration of technology, as it means that small devices can draw on big computing resources (chapter two). But it’s also important for machine learning because it means that machines don’t need to ‘learn’ from their own separate experiences; they can learn from others’ too, so that every machine in a swarm or fleet adds to the collective ‘intelligence’ of the whole.
"A final point about machine learning: it used to be that the computing power that fuelled any particular system was physically present within the system in question. The most powerful digital devices literally contained the processors that made them run. The arrival of cloud computing in the last decade or so has meant that the computing power no longer needs to be located within the device itself: like Apple’s Siri it can be accessed over the internet. This has major implications for the integration of technology, as it means that small devices can draw on big computing resources (chapter two). But it’s also important for machine learning because it means that machines don’t need to ‘learn’ from their own separate experiences; they can learn from others’ too, so that every machine in a swarm or fleet adds to the collective ‘intelligence’ of the whole."
Los cuatro factores de la información: se recogen muchos más datos, gracias a la actividad social alrededor de todo lo que se puede digitalizar (y se digitaliza); el coste del almacenamiento se ha reducido cada dos años a la mitad durante los últimos cincuenta; la explosión en capacidad de cálculo nos ha dado la capacidad de procesar lo que almacenamos; finalmente, la información digital prácticamente no tiene coste de reproducción.

Four factors have made this possible. First, much more data is gathered, because an increasing amounts of social activity is undertaken by and through digital systems and platforms. Second, in the last fifty years the cost of digital storage has halved every two years or so, while increasing in density ‘50-million fold’. Third, the explosion in computational power has given us the ability to process what we store. Fourth, digital information has almost no marginal cost of reproduction— it can be replicated millions of times very cheaply. Together, these factors explain why the transition from a print-based information system to a digital one has yielded such an explosion of data.
"Four factors have made this possible. First, much more data is gathered, because an increasing amounts of social activity is undertaken by and through digital systems and platforms. Second, in the last fifty years the cost of digital storage has ha
lved every two years or so, while increasing in density ‘50-million fold’. Third, the explosion in computational power has given us the ability to process what we store. Fourth, digital information has almost no marginal cost of reproduction— it can be replicated millions of times very cheaply. Together, these factors explain why the transition from a print-based information system to a digital one has yielded such an explosion of data."
A veces se usa de manera intercambiable código y algoritmos, cuando no son estrictamente lo mismo. La idea de algoritmo se refiere a la descripción de cualquier aproximación matemática al razonamiento, cálculo y manipulación de datos. Se trata de un conjunto de instrucciones para realizar una tarea. Pero no necesita estar codificado para que lo maneje una máquina. Cuando hablamos de tecnología digital el algoritmo es la fórmula y el código es la expresión del algoritmo en un lenguaje de programación.

Code and algorithms are often referred to interchangeably, but they’re not strictly the same thing.The word algorithm can be traced back to the ninth-century Persian mathematician Abd’Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mūsa ̄ Al-Khwar̄ izmī. The translation of his name, algorismus, came to describe any mathematical approach to reasoning, calculating, and manipulating data.8 Today, the word algorithm describes a set of instructions for performing a task or solving a problem. It need not be written in computer code.
...
When we talk about digital technology, the algorithm is the formula and the code is the expression of that formula in programming language.
"Code and algorithms are often referred to interchangeably, but they’re not strictly the same thing.The word algorithm can be traced back to the ninth-century Persian mathematician Abd’Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mūsa ̄ Al-Khwar̄ izmī. The translation of his name, algorismus, came to describe any mathematical approach to reasoning, calculating, and manipulating data.8 Today, the word algorithm describes a set of instructions for performing a task or solving a problem. It need not be written in computer code.
...
When we talk about digital technology, the algorithm is the formula and the code is the expression of that formula in programming language."
Sobre los protocolos en las actividades humanas. ¿Qué sucede si nuestro médico ignora las pruebas y se deja llevar por su experiencia o intuición y el resultado es dañino para nosotros?

After a while you are attended by a human doctor, Dr Smith, who inspects your leg and tells you that it needs to be operated upon immediately. Concerned by this response, you ask whether that course of action is consistent with the X-ray results. Dr Smith replies that he has not looked at the X-ray results; he does not need to. He’s an experienced physician and has seen this a hundred times before—the leg needs to be operated on immediately. The surgery takes place, and it turns out that Dr Smith was wrong: there was no need to operate after all. This would have been clearly visible from the X-ray results. Unfortunately, because of complications arising from the surgery, you suffer long-term damage to the limb. You sue the hospital. In court, unsurprisingly, the judge finds that Dr Smith acted negligently by not looking at the scans— not because the law contains a rule specifying that doctors must always look at X-ray results, but because the law lays down a standard that doctors must exercise reasonable care or they will be negligent. It was negligent, the court finds, to refuse even to look at the scans.
"After a while you are attended by a human doctor, Dr Smith, who inspects your leg and tells you that it needs to be operated upon immediately. Concerned by this response, you ask whether that course of action is consistent with the X-ray results. Dr Smith replies that he has not looked at the X-ray results; he does not need to. He’s an experienced physician and has seen this a hundred times before—the leg needs to be operated on immediately. The surgery takes place, and it turns out that Dr Smith was wrong
: there was no need to operate after all. This would have been clearly visible from the X-ray results. Unfortunately, because of complications arising from the surgery, you suffer long-term damage to the limb. You sue the hospital. In court, unsurprisingly, the judge finds that Dr Smith acted negligently by not looking at the scans— not because the law contains a rule specifying that doctors must always look at X-ray results, but because the law lays down a standard that doctors must exercise reasonable care or they will be negligent. It was negligent, the court finds, to refuse even to look at the scans."
Tal vez si hubiera habido más tecnología, el Dr. hubiera debido seguir mejor los protocolos para poder avanzar.

Now imagine what might have happened in the digital lifeworld. Dr Smith would have been required to consult Robots MD and JD before operating. Not to do so would itself be negligent. In fact, it might not have been possible to register a surgical procedure on the system without having consulted Robots MD and JD first.When consulted, these AI systems would have warned Dr Smith that he ought to wait for the X-ray; operating without doing so would be likely to cause harm and be seen by a court as negligent.
"Now imagine what might have happened in the digital lifeworld. Dr Smith would have been required to consult Robots MD and JD before operating. Not to do so would itself be negligent. In fact, it might not have been possible to register a surgical procedure on the system without having consulted Robots MD and JD first.When consulted, these AI systems would have warned Dr Smith that he ought to wait for the X-ray; operating without doing so would be likely to cause harm and be seen by a court as negligent."
Esto puede llevar a situaciones como las de no poder hacer nada que no haya previsto el diseñador del sistema, que nos proporciona un sistema que nos da mayor libertad para hacer cosas, pero que también la restringe.

Liberty and Private Power One of the curious traits of digital technology, as we’ve seen, is that it can enhance and restrict our freedom at the same time. It frees us to do things that we couldn’t do previously. But it restricts us according to the constraints of the code.
"Liberty and Private Power One of the curious traits of digital technology, as we’ve seen, is that it can enhance and restrict our freedom at the same time. It frees us to do things that we couldn’t do previously. But it restricts us according to the constraints of the code."
Intercambiamos tener que sufrir algo de totalitarismo a cambio de la comodidad y los resultados que podemos conseguir.

The legal scholar Tim Wu, referring to this example, observes that ‘consumers on the whole seem content to bear a little totalitarianism for convenience.’
"The legal scholar Tim Wu, referring to this example, observes that ‘consumers on the whole seem content to bear a little totalitarianism for convenience.’"
La capacidad de procesamiento de datos tendrá otras consecuencias: cuando alguien consiga un trabajo, será común que éste sea medido, observado y evaluado por algoritmos. Esto significa que los algoritmos decidirán quién consigue su medio de vida.

Algorithms, in short, will decide whether millions of people access the most precious thing the market has to offer: a livelihood. Once a person has a job, it will become more common for their work itself to be measured, monitored, and assessed using algorithms. They’re already used to predict when employees
"Algorithms, in short, will decide whether millions of people access the most precious thing the market has to offer: a livelihood. Once a person has a job, it will become more common for their work itself to be measured, monitored, and assessed using algorithms. They’re already used to predict when employees"
Pero dejar que los algoritmos tomen esas decisiones no es necesariamente malo. Es posible que algoritmos bien diseñados pudieran eliminar los sesgos y prejuicios de los humanos. podría, por ejemplo, ampliar la base de candidatos para un puesto, más allá de
las universidades y centros habituales. Y lo mismo podría pasar con los créditos, seguros… Los algoritmos podrían convertirse en un mecanismo de redistribución más justo.

Using algorithms and data to make these decisions is not inherently a bad thing. On the contrary, it’s possible that carefully crafted algorithms could eliminate the biases and prejudices of human decision-makers.With regard to work, for instance, affirmative action algorithms could be used to broaden the pool of successful applicants from beyond the usual colleges and institutions. When it comes to loans, housing, and insurance, algorithms could be used to widen access for those who need or deserve it most. My point, at this stage, is simpler: code (embodying algorithms) is an increasingly important mechanism of distributive justice.
"Using algorithms and data to make these decisions is not inherently a bad thing. On the contrary, it’s possible that carefully crafted algorithms could eliminate the biases and prejudices of human decision-makers.With regard to work, for instance, affirmative action algorithms could be used to broaden the pool of successful applicants from beyond the usual colleges and institutions. When it comes to loans, housing, and insurance, algorithms could be used to widen access for those who need or deserve it most. My point, at this stage, is simpler: code (embodying algorithms) is an increasingly important mechanism of distributive justice."
Pero esto no tiene por qué suceder por sí solo, es necesario prestarle la atención adecuada.

It demands close political attention.
"It demands close political attention."
También pueden afectar a los precios. Si alguien midiera cómo usamos los sistemas (incluyendo fuentes externas de información) podría aumentar notablemente sus beneficios. Esto podría llevar, por ejemplo, a precios para cada persona, esto es, cobrar a cada usuario justamente lo máximo que está dispuesto a pagar por un servicio, en ese preciso momento.

Research suggests that if Netflix took into account its customers’ online behaviour (5,000 variables, including how frequently they visit IMDB and Rotten Tomatoes) it could increase its profits by more than 12 per cent. An extreme end result would be ‘person-specific pricing’ whereby algorithms are used to charge customers the precise maximum they are prepared to pay at that moment.
"Research suggests that if Netflix took into account its customers’ online behaviour (5,000 variables, including how frequently they visit IMDB and Rotten Tomatoes) it could increase its profits by more than 12 per cent. An extreme end result would be ‘person-specific pricing’ whereby algorithms are used to charge customers the precise maximum they are prepared to pay at that moment."
El libro dice muchas más cosas y creo que ha valido la pena leerlo y aquí sólo hemos dejado unos párrafos que nos llamaron la atención.
[0] Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech
https://global.oup.com/academic/product/future-politics-9780198825616
[1] Jamie Susskind
https://www.jamiesusskind.com/
Medios sociales e inteligencia colectiva, ¿hemos fracasado?
Muchos creímos que una democratización de la posibilidad de publicar redundaría en más visiones que, además, serían mejores. Yo sigo pensando que es bueno que todo el mundo tenga acceso a la publicación y, por lo tanto, a tener una audiencia para sus ideas, pero también creo que eso nos impone una responsabilidad: estar atentos, filtrar, no dejarnos llevar…
En Algorithmic Amplification for Collective Intelligence [0] publicaron un texto bastante interesante sobre el tema, con una versión más positiva de lo habitual. El subtítulo es: los medios sociales prometieron una nueva esfera pública democratizada, y digital. Los algoritmos nos pueden ayudar a alcanzarla.

Social media promised a new, democratized, and digital public sphere. Algorithms can help us get there.
"Social media promised a new, democratized, and digital public sphere. Algorithms can help us get there."
Sin embargo, empieza hablando de cómo hemos pasado de estas tecnologías liberadoras a la era de la post-verdad: veíamos las herramientas como revolucionarias, facilitando la comunicación entre personas a nivel planetario.

Just about five years after their respective releases, Facebook and Twitter were touted as literally revolutionary tools. Through its enabling of cheap, fast, and easy peer-to-peer communication at scale,...
"Just about five years after their respective releases, Facebook and Twitter were touted as literally revolutionary tools. Through its enabling of cheap, fast, and easy peer-to-peer communication at scale,..."
Sin embargo, lo que estamos viendo es un incremento de lo que nos hace pensar que la gente ha perdido su capacidad de razonar, debatir y conseguir tener creencias ajustadas a la realidad.

Rather than ushering in the era of the more informed citizen, the increasing use of social media had coincided with events that seemed to fundamentally question people’s ability to reason, deliberate, and form accurate beliefs.
"Rather than ushering in the era of the more informed citizen, the increasing use of social media had coincided with events that seemed to fundamentally question people’s ability to reason, deliberate, and form accurate beliefs."
No está claro que la única responsabilidad sea de los medios sociales, por supuesto.
Pero hay que entender el papel que desempeñan los algoritmos en la esfera pública en la red, empezando por la clara sobreabundancia de información.

In other words, we now find ourselves faced with information overload. It is impossible for people to engage with all information available to them.
"In other words, we now find ourselves faced with information overload. It is impossible for people to engage with all information available to them."
Esto ha hecho que en muchas ocasiones nos veamos obligados a confiar en los algoritmos, que nos permitirían manejar mejor esta sobrecarga. Estos algoritmos se habrían hecho, en cierto modo, imprescindibles para poder enfrentarnos a todo el contenido disponible.

n response to this information overload, we have come to rely on content-curating algorithms such as those underlying recommender systems on social media ...
...
These algorithms provide a truly indispensable service.
"n response to this information overload, we have come to rely on content-curating algorithms such as those underlying recommender systems on social media ...
...
These algorithms provide a truly indispensable service."
Pero claro, estos algoritmos no son neutros, y promueven ciertos tipos de contenido frente a otros, de forma que juchas veces es inocuo, aunque que no siempre.

Other the other hand, the algorithms we rely on to navigate through the overload of information online are not neutral. By design, they tend to promote some types of content while suppressing others —a process sometimes referred to as algorithmic amplification.[44,45] While this is innocuous or beneficial in many instances,...
"Other the other hand, the algo
rithms we rely on to navigate through the overload of information online are not neutral. By design, they tend to promote some types of content while suppressing others —a process sometimes referred to as algorithmic amplification.[44,45] While this is innocuous or beneficial in many instances,..."
No sólo eso, sino que en muchos casos este diseño es paternalista, puesto que trata de indicarnos qué es lo relevante para nosotros, desde el punto de vista de sus diseñadores. Y el objetivo casi siempre es económico (que las plataformas ganen más), así que los algoritmos tratan de obtener esos resultados.

As currently implemented, algorithmic amplification is inherently paternalistic. The underlying algorithms are designed by platform engineers who get to decide what it means for some content to be “relevant” to some user. Since most platforms have commercial goals to retain their users and maximize revenue, they are incentivized to design algorithms that amplify content in ways that achieve these goals.
"As currently implemented, algorithmic amplification is inherently paternalistic. The underlying algorithms are designed by platform engineers who get to decide what it means for some content to be “relevant” to some user. Since most platforms have commercial goals to retain their users and maximize revenue, they are incentivized to design algorithms that amplify content in ways that achieve these goals."
Por lo tanto, algo habría que hacer para que las plataformas reflejen mejor los intereses de sus usuarios y esto pasaría por hacer algunos cambios en la forma de interactuar, mejorar las competencias digitales de la gente o hacer que las plataformas se comporten de manera más transparente.

The basic idea is that by making small changes in the user interface, supporting users’ digital competencies, or by regulating platforms to be more transparent, people might be able to have more informative and less misleading experiences online
"The basic idea is that by making small changes in the user interface, supporting users’ digital competencies, or by regulating platforms to be more transparent, people might be able to have more informative and less misleading experiences online"
Algunos ejemplos de esto son los verificadores externos (factchecks) y las notas de las comunidades (community notes). Pero es inevitable que estas medidas se centren en una parte del problema, sin poder ayudar al usuario en todas sus necesidades.

All of these efforts are valuable and worthwhile. They help people get the most out of access to information online without encroaching on their agency. However, these existing efforts have tended to focus on just part of the picture.
"All of these efforts are valuable and worthwhile. They help people get the most out of access to information online without encroaching on their agency. However, these existing efforts have tended to focus on just part of the picture."
También podríamos ver estos algorimos y su amplificación como una oportunidad: que nos ayuden a navegar pero que no estén optimizados para engancharnos a nada, ¿sería esto posible?

What if we viewed algorithmic ranking and amplification not as a threat to be mitigated, but as an opportunity? We need algorithms to help us navigate information online, but those algorithms need not optimize for engagement. Is it possible to engineer a better online public sphere by changing the algorithms that mediate it?
"What if we viewed algorithmic ranking and amplification not as a threat to be mitigated, but as an opportunity? We need algorithms to help us navigate information online, but those algorithms need not optimize for engagement. Is it possible to engineer a better online public sphere by changing the algorithms that mediate it?"
Ya hay algunas iniciativas, por ejemplo en Spotiy saben que si los algoritmos se basan solo en las relaciones con el contenido, lo que aparece es que los ricos se hacen más ricos y los nuevos participantes tienen dificilísimo poder despertar el interés de nadie. Así que añaden parámetros que contrarestan este
efecto.

At Spotify, for instance, it has been recognized that an exclusively engagement-based approach to recommendation would result in a rich-get-richer feedback loop, whereby the popularity of top performers gets rewarded over and over again while new artists have little opportunity to break into the market. For this reason, Spotify researchers have included a “fairness” metric in their algorithm so that new artists, and artists of different demographics, are more likely to be included in recommendations and playlists.
"At Spotify, for instance, it has been recognized that an exclusively engagement-based approach to recommendation would result in a rich-get-richer feedback loop, whereby the popularity of top performers gets rewarded over and over again while new artists have little opportunity to break into the market. For this reason, Spotify researchers have included a “fairness” metric in their algorithm so that new artists, and artists of different demographics, are more likely to be included in recommendations and playlists."
Claro, digo yo, cuando se producen estos fenómenos lo que termina sucediendo es que la gente se va, porque lo que obtienen va perdiendo más y más interés.
En YouTube, nos dicen, también incluyen parámetros relacionados con la ‘responsabilidad’ que incluye respuestas a encuestas que se hacen los usuarios.

At YouTube, criticism that their engagement-based approach to recommendations amplified toxic videos was rebutted with an explanation that, “since 2017, YouTube has recommended clips based on a metric called ‘responsibility,’ which includes input from satisfaction surveys it shows after videos.”
"At YouTube, criticism that their engagement-based approach to recommendations amplified toxic videos was rebutted with an explanation that, “since 2017, YouTube has recommended clips based on a metric called ‘responsibility,’ which includes input from satisfaction surveys it shows after videos.”"
Una vez alcanzadas (cuando se alcance) las recomendaciones cuyo objetivo es el benficio social, la siguiente etapa sería tratar de alcanzar la inteligencia colectiva: esto es, algoritmos que mejoren la deliberación y mejoren nuestro conocimiento.

Once we acknowledge that the algorithms driving social media recommender systems and civic platforms can be programmed to optimize for socially beneficial outcomes, it seems reasonable to ask: Can we optimize for collective intelligence? Specifically, can we design algorithms to curate content in ways that support deliberation and improve the accuracy of our beliefs?.
"Once we acknowledge that the algorithms driving social media recommender systems and civic platforms can be programmed to optimize for socially beneficial outcomes, it seems reasonable to ask: Can we optimize for collective intelligence? Specifically, can we design algorithms to curate content in ways that support deliberation and improve the accuracy of our beliefs?."
También sería interesante dar visibilidad a los usuarios que tengan un mejor historial de buen juicio sobre algún tema.

A second thought might be to amplify users with track records of accurate judgments on a given topic.
"A second thought might be to amplify users with track records of accurate judgments on a given topic."
Y la pregunta es, ¿sería posible amplificar algorítmicamente los buenos argumentos?

This stream of research begs the question: What if we could algorithmically amplify good arguments online? If algorithms could classify and promote strong, well-structured arguments over fallacious, weak arguments, this could seemingly foster more informed deliberation online.
"This stream of research begs the question: What if we could algorithmically amplify good arguments online? If algorithms could classify and promote strong, well-structured arguments over fallacious, weak arguments, this could seemingly foster more informed deliberation online."
Nada garantiza que esto fuera a mejorar el comportamiento de la gente en la red, ni sus habilidades o conocimientos y a partir de aquí el artículo se vuelve algo m
ás técnico, sin olvidar que esto también es manipular la información y a la gente.

Another criticism of this work is that content-curating algorithms are manipulative and redesigning them does not change this. While it is true that content-curating algorithms are inherently paternalistic as currently implemented, there are reasons to not shy away from this issue.
"Another criticism of this work is that content-curating algorithms are manipulative and redesigning them does not change this. While it is true that content-curating algorithms are inherently paternalistic as currently implemented, there are reasons to not shy away from this issue."
Tampoco hay que olvidar que estas plataformas son negocios y hace falta que haya incentivos y modelos de negocio para que estas nuevas aproximaciones tengan sentido.

Even if algorithms for intelligence-based ranking are developed, there are no incentives or business models for adopting them
"Even if algorithms for intelligence-based ranking are developed, there are no incentives or business models for adopting them"
Muy interesante. Léanlo entero, si pueden.
Mi opinión es que, efectivamente, estas propuestas parecen difíciles de conseguir, pero que si nadie prueba es bastante probable que sigamos igual.
También, como digo cada vez que puedo, que tenemos que estar atentos individualmente, no dejarnos llevar por las emociones (o al menos solo de vez en cuando) y estar alerta todo el tiempo para no equivocarnos a la hora de apoyar causas, difundir información y estar en la red. Y tampoco olvidar que estos algoritmos sociales están siendo emulados desde los medios más tradicionales, que necesitan sobrevivir y también necesitan que les prestemos atención, de la manera que estemos dispuestos a hacerlo.
[0] Algorithmic Amplification for Collective Intelligence
https://knightcolumbia.org/content/algorithmic-amplification-for-collective-intelligence
Nada es eterno en internet, parece
Tengo guardado este enlace desde hace tiempo (pero ya se habrán fijado en que, además, le estoy dedicando poco tiempo a este sitio), que nos habla del archivado, la permanencia de la información en la red y cómo se van perdiendo datos poco a poco.
Se trata de Finer Points: Web rot is erasing our images and videos [0] y empieza hablando de la ‘crisis de los cuarenta’ de internet, esa edad en la que se pasa revista, elecciones, metas…

The Internet is in the midst of a midlife crisis. Its age is anywhere from 33 to 40 years old, the ripe age for contemplating past misses and successes, its legacy and an overbearing questioning of choices, behaviors and goals.
"The Internet is in the midst of a midlife crisis. Its age is anywhere from 33 to 40 years old, the ripe age for contemplating past misses and successes, its legacy and an overbearing questioning of choices, behaviors and goals."
Poco después introduce el concepto de pudrición, de la mano de pequeños cambios (se centra en fotografía, porque el sitio es DrPreview, que es ¿era? un sitio sobre material fotográfico y noticias alrededor del mundillo). Nos dice que uno de los servicios Apple se ha eliminado, Google ha quitado el almacenamiento ilimitado para fotografías, Flickr también ha borrado imágenes, Vimeo….
Todavía lo es porque encontraron un comprador (Camera review site DPReview finds a buyer, avoids shutdown by Amazon [1]).

Right before our eyes, the web is not only changing but rotting. Sometimes, the changes are small: Apple removes a photo product, Google removes unlimited photo storage, and Twitter breaks its legacy referral links. Other times, it is much larger, such as Flickr deleting thousands of user photos, Vimeo deleting user videos ...
"Right before our eyes, the web is not only changing but rotting. Sometimes, the changes are small: Apple removes a photo product, Google removes unlimited photo storage, and Twitter breaks its legacy referral links. Other times, it is much larger, such as Flickr deleting thousands of user photos, Vimeo deleting user videos ..."
Internet hoy en día es una competición económica, donde lo que realmente avanza son los intentos de ser la próxima gran empresa en obtención de beneficios, con los usuarios pasando por caja.

Today's Internet, seemingly driven by economic pursuits, is a cornucopia of tech companies racing to leverage AI to make operations more efficient, always on service with monthly subscriptions, social media clout chasing with revenue sharing schemes or plain old quarterly growth financials.
"Today's Internet, seemingly driven by economic pursuits, is a cornucopia of tech companies racing to leverage AI to make operations more efficient, always on service with monthly subscriptions, social media clout chasing with revenue sharing schemes or plain old quarterly growth financials."
Mientras tanto, mucho de lo que creíamos archivado en la red para siempre va desapareciendo.

Past websites, scholarly papers, early streaming videos, photos and more are vanishing daily, lost to the ether. Web rot reminds us that the Internet is not permanent.
"Past websites, scholarly papers, early streaming videos, photos and more are vanishing daily, lost to the ether. Web rot reminds us that the Internet is not permanent."
Se están perdiendo, nos dice, imágenes importantes de Twitter (X), como muchas de las que se publicaron en la llamada primavera árabe.

But the bulk of these images and videos were made between 2010 and 2013, and if a glitch in code can erase it all, what a scary prospect for our future knowledge.
"But the bulk of these images and videos were made between 2010 and 2013, and if a glitch in code can erase it all, what a scary prospect for our future knowledge."
La cuestión es que depender del archivado realizado por estas empresas se está demostrando que es una temeridad (no creo que la cosa sea mucho mejor en muchas empresas y organizaciones, donde los único que estamos seg
uros que se mantiene son los datos ‘vivos’: nos esperan ‘sorpresas’ desagradables en el archivado de muchas cosas durante los próximos años, o eso me temo).
Por lo tanto, ¿qué podemos hacer?
Primero, nos dice, mantener una higiene adecuada de datos, esto es asegurémonos de que esos repositorios en los que hemos confiado siguen vivos (nuestros datos de contacto actualizados, por ejemplo, para asegurarnos de que nos llegen las noticias, aunque sean malas).

First, practice good data hygiene, log into all your accounts where you post photos and videos, and ensure your email and other contact info are up to date. When a service (Flickr or Vimeo, for instance) changes its rules around how it treats your data, they're required to notify you, and if your email is out of date, you can easily miss the news and lose your files.
"First, practice good data hygiene, log into all your accounts where you post photos and videos, and ensure your email and other contact info are up to date. When a service (Flickr or Vimeo, for instance) changes its rules around how it treats your data, they're required to notify you, and if your email is out of date, you can easily miss the news and lose your files."
Segundo, analizar si confiamos en esas plataformas a las que cedemos nuestros datos (imágenes, dice): si es así, podemos seguir; pero si no (y aunque confiemos, diría yo) será bueno mantener una copia local.

Next, take stock of where you are posting and ask yourself if you trust the platform with your images and videos. If you do, continue posting, but consider downloading your data once a year to save files locally in a backup.
"Next, take stock of where you are posting and ask yourself if you trust the platform with your images and videos. If you do, continue posting, but consider downloading your data once a year to save files locally in a backup."
Finalmente, ¿tienen las empresas de internet algún tipo de responsabilidad en el archivado de lo que se les ha confiado? Legalmente, nos dice, no lo parece, pero tal vez hay una componente de responsabilidad social que habría que considerar.

Finally, back to the question of whether it's okay for owners of media companies to delete at any time the accumulated history of everything it had ever published. As a private company, legally, of course, they can. But as a social responsibility, maybe they shouldn't.
"Finally, back to the question of whether it's okay for owners of media companies to delete at any time the accumulated history of everything it had ever published. As a private company, legally, of course, they can. But as a social responsibility, maybe they shouldn't."
Yendo más allá, nos dice, deberíamos trabajar con la gente especializada en preservación (por ejemplo, en las bibliotecas públicas, pero también en las empresas de internet y universidades).

Here's a suggestion: work with preservationists within public libraries, tech companies and universities to maintain an archive and continue to make it accessible to the Internet.
"Here's a suggestion: work with preservationists within public libraries, tech companies and universities to maintain an archive and continue to make it accessible to the Internet."
Concluye diciendo: preservar los tesoros digitales requierepoco esfuerzo, pero lo primero que hay que hacer es darse cuenta de los riesgos de la pudrición de la web y pedir a las plataformas que albergan esos datos que reconozcan su valor.

We can preserve our digital treasures with little effort, but we have to first recognize the risks of web rot and ask the platforms that hold our data and the companies that own our media to recognize their inherent value. Some things can't be fully captured as a line item on a corporate spreadsheet. Some things require a heart.
"We can preserve our digital treasures with little effort, but we have to first recognize the risks of web rot and ask the platforms that hold our data and the companies that own our media to recognize their inherent value. Some things can't be fully captured as a line item on a corporate spreadsheet. Som
e things require a heart."
Justo en estos días se está hablando de otro problema: la posible desaparición del archivo de internet: The Internet Archive’s last-ditch effort to save itself [2]. En este caso es por falta de dinero, por las amenazas de los ‘guardianes del copyright’.
[0] Finer Points: Web rot is erasing our images and videos
https://www.dpreview.com/opinion/0517674260/web-rot-is-erasing-our-images-and-videos
[1] Camera review site DPReview finds a buyer, avoids shutdown by Amazon
https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2023/06/camera-review-site-dpreview-finds-a-buyer-avoids-shutdown-by-amazon/
[2] The Internet Archive’s last-ditch effort to save itself
https://lunduke.locals.com/post/5556650/the-internet-archives-last-ditch-effort-to-save-itself
Por lo tanto, descarga, archiva, conserva ...
Siguiendo la estela de lo que decíamos la semana pasada (Nada es eterno en internet, parece [0]) y teniendo que recordar que seguramente lo haremos mal (el trabajo de archivero no es tan sencillo como a veces pensamos), nos viene al pelo otra entrada que nos recordaba el tema desde otro punto de vista: Nota para mi yo del pasado: descarga todo lo que amas [1].
A través de sus vivencias personales Javier Lacort nos recuerda cómo algunas cosas que le gustaban e incluso páginas web que hizo en algún momento hoy en día están perdidas.

Hoy no tengo acceso a ninguno de esos elementos que construyeron mi adolescencia.
"Hoy no tengo acceso a ninguno de esos elementos que construyeron mi adolescencia."
Para muchas personas, no tener acceso a sus recuerdos de la adolescencia no es un problema, pero está claro que siempre habrá contenidos (digitales y de otro tipo) que nos gustaría tener más adelante.

Algo así me gustaría sentir rememorando ese tipo de recuerdos digitales.
"Algo así me gustaría sentir rememorando ese tipo de recuerdos digitales."
Y es porque a veces no nos damos cuenta de lo que estamos perdiendo.

O peor: porque no entendía el valor que daría en el futuro a lo que entonces era cotidiano pero que hoy amaría.
"O peor: porque no entendía el valor que daría en el futuro a lo que entonces era cotidiano pero que hoy amaría."
Así que la propuesta es clara: ¿por qué no acumular todo lo que nos gusta?
Por lo que pueda pasar.

Si hacemos fotos y vídeos de lo que ocurre en nuestra vida y queremos almacenar para siempre, ¿por qué no hacerlo de aquello que ocurre en nuestra vida digital? Viva el acumular recuerdos y contenidos que se revalorizarán con el paso del tiempo, amigos.
"Si hacemos fotos y vídeos de lo que ocurre en nuestra vida y queremos almacenar para siempre, ¿por qué no hacerlo de aquello que ocurre en nuestra vida digital? Viva el acumular recuerdos y contenidos que se revalorizarán con el paso del tiempo, amigos."
Me he sentido cercano a Lacort porque casi todo lo que leo lo voy guardando (en una cuenta de correo, recordad que hablaba de nuestras malas costumbres archivísticas) y ya llevo una buena temporada dándole cariño a muchos de mis recuerdos digitales (o digitalizados, que es una forma de tener a mano algunos documentos físicos).
Como bola extra (sólo para manitas digitales) una herramienta de Simon Willison, Dogsheep [2] que tiene un montón de herramientas para descargar contenido (propio, pero también de otros) de diversos sitios de publicación y los archiva localmente.
Y un recordatorio a la Indie web y sus publicar en varios sitios, republicar, (sin enlaces, que blogalia sigue en horas bajas) …
[0] Nada es eterno en internet, parece
http://blog.elmundoesimperfecto.com/2024/05/03/nada-es-eterno-en-internet/
[1] Nota para mi yo del pasado: descarga todo lo que amas
https://www.xataka.com/otros/nota-para-mi-yo-pasado-descarga-que-amas
[2] Dogsheep
https://dogsheep.github.io/