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We post fun facts about psychology and psychological phenomenon.

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⭕️ The famous "Stroop Effect" is named after J. Ridley Stroop who discovered this strange phenomenon in the 1930s. Here is your job: name the colors of the following words. Do NOT read the words...rather, say the color of the words. For example, if the word "BLUE" is printed in a red color, you should say "RED". Say the colors as fast as you can. It is not as easy as you might think!

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In psychology, the Stroop effect is a demonstration of cognitive interference where a delay in the reaction time of a task occurs due to a mismatch in stimuli. The effect has been used to create a psychological test that is widely used in clinical practice and investigation.

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❗️The Dark side of perfectionism.

💢 One might think that perfectionism might always drive any human to inevitable success, but this is quite the contrary. Excessive perfectionism is a destructive behaviour. Although it is a good practice in theory to be perfect, we need to understand that reality is far from perfect. As humans we were not meant to be perfect. We were meant to be flawed, and through these flaws we were to evolve in time to something close to perfectionism, but never be perfect at all. Just think about it. If we were to be perfect at one point of our lives, further than that point it would mean, that there would be no room for improvement, hence no reason to live longer. You must also take into consideration the fact that no matter how hard you try to perfect something, there will always be someone who will be a mile further than the point you got. Perfectionist people are rarely happy, for they are quite literally never happy with the result they get in any subject matter. They always try to make what they work on perfect, but fail to realize that, mistakes and problems will always be there.

It is mostly suggested to thrive towards excellence rather than perfectionism. The philosophy of excellence is that you try your best and are open to make mistakes, and rather than dismissing what you achieved and start over, instead you would accept it as it is, learn from the mistakes and the problems and ultimately move on.

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The monster study! @psychologynews44
📍1) The Monster Study (1939):

The Monster Study was a stuttering experiment on 22 orphan children in Davenport, Iowa, in 1939 conducted by Wendell Johnson at the University of Iowa. Johnson chose one of his graduate students, Mary Tudor, to conduct the experiment and he supervised her research. After placing the children in control and experimental groups, Tudor gave positive speech therapy to half of the children, praising the fluency of their speech, and negative speech therapy to the other half, belittling the children for every speech imperfection and telling them they were stutterers. Many of the normal speaking orphan children who received negative therapy in the experiment suffered negative psychological effects and some retained speech problems during the course of their life. Dubbed “The Monster Study” by some of Johnson’s peers who were horrified that he would experiment on orphan children to prove a theory, the experiment was kept hidden for fear Johnson’s reputation would be tarnished in the wake of human experiments conducted by the Nazis during World War II. The University of Iowa publicly apologized for the Monster Study in 2001.

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❗️The first thing psychology students learn is that there are different lenses by which you can perceive the world of human behaviors. Psychology is a complex field where reductionist approaches don’t represent the real outcome, but to simplify things for better understanding, compartmentalization of things in parts can help. There are five main perspectives in psychology, which you can think of as the lenses. These perspectives include;

Biological perspective; giving the biological background for a certain action.
psychoanalytical perspective; Based on the theory that behaviour stems from the unconscious precesses of the person. (beliefs, desires and fears)
subjective perspective; suggesting that the human behaviour is in control by an individual perception of the world.
cognitive perspective; considering mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, problem solving and memory.
behavioral perspective; Observing stimuli and response. The response is the behaviour.

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If someone were to tell you that the above image was what was known as beauty back in the Persian Qajar days, would you believe it? And what if someone were to tell you that Marilyn Monroe, the popular sex symbol of the 1950’s, would not be a sex symbol today, since she wouldn’t be as slim as she needs to be? All these discussions bottle neck to one subject and that is the study of ‘body image’.

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❗️‘Body image’ is one’s perception of his/her body. And this perception can affect the psychology and behaviour of the said person. The perception is constantly in turn and changes because of the cultural environment and to some degree because of genetic backgrounds. Body image can be characterized by four traits: 1- your affective body image, 2- your cognitive body image, 3- your perceptive body image and 4- your behavioral body image.

All the terms above are self-explanatory. affective meaning the way your body makes you feel, cognitive meaning how your body image affects your thought process, perceptive is the way you see it and behavioral is what behaviors your body image forces you to perform.

One could argue that humans have always had a wrong collective body image throughout the centuries, for as every century passes by, we seem to not see what was beautiful as beautiful when it is recalled! So why should we constantly accept the norms and conform to the trended beauty standards? is it for acceptance? That discussion is out of our scope, but what we can rely on, is that beauty must be a subjective matter, and mischievous entities such as the fashion industries benefit from generally distorting the mass minds to conform to their standards of beauty. Taking it from breast sizes to the general outlook of one’s body shape. We must remember companies do not care about us; all they want is money. So when the Barbie company was criticized about how slim their dolls were, and how it was affecting the perception of children’s bodies, since the sales were at stakes, they confirmed with the public and made dolls for many more body types!

So why care about all this, when every aspect of it seems flawed and so easily molded? It is because we were told to do so! from the time we are born till the time we learn to speak; we are constantly fed with propaganda about the perfect body image from the media. The media makes mass confusion. sometimes it says fat people need to stay fat to accept their body, which promotes body positivity, but totally neglects health risks, sometimes it tells them to slim down, but neglects the fact that some women have genetic problems and can’t do so, so they get more psychologically pressured, and some other times it tells perfectly normal sized people they need to be skin and bone! This is the problem! the media will always have a say on it (where it should not) and will always play with the people’s body perception.

We need to keep in mind that what we may think is right, might be totally wrong since we are human. You might think all the people prefer large breasts, but that is just conventional wisdom and far from the truth (article linked below about men’s perception of breasts). English and Malaysian researchers showed full-body photos of women to 361 men, who rated their attractiveness. Women with large breasts were not considered the most attractive. The honor when to the women with medium-size endowments.

Michael Castleman writes a conclusion about men’s perception for breast size; “Some evidence also suggests that oppressive attitudes toward women may play a role in men’s size preference. Recall the 361 Englishmen who considered women with medium-sized breasts the most attractive. The researchers also asked them to complete a survey that explored their feelings about women in society. The most sexist showed a strong preference for large breasts, while the more egalitarian men preferred smaller breasts. So do men really want women with big boobs? Some do, at least in fantasy, hence the joke about the woman who gets the job. But many prefer women with medium or small breasts, and many others don’t care. It turns out that men’s feelings about women’s breasts are more complex than the stereotype would have us believe.”

Checkout the article; https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/all-about-sex/201306/boobs-mens-complex-feelings-about-womens-breasts?amp

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May is mental health awareness month. Take care of yourself and people around you ❤️

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⭕️ What to do during mental health awareness month (specially with the pandemic at hand!)

There are a variety of ways to raise mental health awareness this month. Share relevant articles and posts through social media, and if you’re comfortable doing so, share your own mental health story with others. Stopping stigma means reducing shame, and when even one person is open about their experience, others may realize they are not alone and that there is no shame in seeking help.

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All psychology pinned «⭕️ What to do during mental health awareness month (specially with the pandemic at hand!) There are a variety of ways to raise mental health awareness this month. Share relevant articles and posts through social media, and if you’re comfortable doing so,…»
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Source: psychology today
⭕️ ten tips to avoid burn outs

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💡Main approaches of the individual perspective:

The individualistic perspective of psychology referees to the subject’s perception of reality, and what behaviour this perception elicits. We all have different views of reality, and how we come to see reality, decides what our behaviour will be like. The individualistic perspective of psychology takes three trends: (1) The experimental method; applying scientific method to behavior, (2) Psychoanalytical method; taking the unconscious into account and (3) Humanistic approach; taking into account the human aspects such as self-actualization and creativity.

The individualistic perspective is a merge between the behavioral, cognitive, psychoanalytical and humanistic perspectives. This is mainly because the behavioral perspective fails to take into account the cognitive processes that take place when an action triggers a response from a human. The psychoanalytical and humanistic aspects come into this merge, because we are species with unconsciousness and possess human qualities such as creativity and self-actualization.

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❗️What is Gestalt psychology?

Was an approach to psychology that began in Germany early in the twentieth century. The Gestalt psychologist emphasized the importance of perceiving whole objects or forms, and proposed a number of principles to explain how we organize objects. As used in Gestalt psychology, the German word gestalt is interpreted as "pattern" or "configuration".
These theories went on to explain our distinction from figure and the background, grouping of objects and the perception of distance.

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📍How do humans perceive depth?

Humans are binocular beings, hence the utilization of both of their eyes help perceive depth, but this is not enough. Hence, they also use the mechanisms of detecting depth with monocular vision. These mechanisms include: 1) relative size of the object at hand (If an image contains an array of similar objects that differ in size, the viewer interprets the smaller object as being farther away. 2) Interposition; If one object is positioned so that it obstructs the view of the other, the viewer perceives the overlapping object as being nearer. 3) Relative height; Among similar objects, those that appear closer to the horizon are perceived as being farther away. 4) Perspective; When parallel lines in a scene appear to converge in the image, they are perceived as vanishing in the distance. 5) Shading and shadows. and 6) motion.

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📍Pedophilia;
Pedophilia is a sexual attraction to children. It is considered a paraphilia, a condition in which a person's sexual arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about and engaging in sexual behavior that is atypical and extreme. Pedophiles are more often men and can be attracted to either or both sexes. How well they relate to adults of the same or opposite sex varies.
Pedophilic disorder can be diagnosed in people who are willing to disclose this paraphilia, as well as in people who deny any sexual attraction to children but demonstrate objective evidence of pedophilia. For the condition to be diagnosed, an individual must either act on their sexual urges or experience significant distress or interpersonal difficulty as a result of their urges or fantasies. Without these two criteria, a person may have a pedophilic sexual orientation but not pedophilic disorder. 

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