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📚 UPSC 📚

1️⃣ NCERTS 👉
2️⃣ Polity 👉
3️⃣ History 👉
4️⃣ Geography 👉
5️⃣ Economics 👉
6️⃣ Art & Cult. 👉
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▪️Way Forward

✅Demand generation, augmentation of industrial infrastructure and promotion of MSMEs
✅Mega public projects such as Sagar- mala, Bharatmala, industrial corridors, and the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) can stimulate domestic manufacturing activities eg Madhepura Electric Locomotive Project, a joint venture between the Indian Railways and the French multinational Alstom, provides a good example of how mega projects can be leveraged to boost domestic production.
✅Portal to monitor projects beyond a given threshold so that any roadblocks are identified and addressed on a real time basis.
✅Liberalise further FDI in manufacturing
✅Harmonize Indian quality standards with global standards in many sectors.( Task to be given to QCI , BIS)
✅Review of standards of engineering education and its linkages with industry and prepare employable workforce
✅Addressing the following issues in respect of MSMEs:
🔸Setting up of mega parks and manufacturing clusters in labour intensive sectors with common facilities to reduce costs and improve quality.
🔸 Workers of industrial units in the new mega parks should have decent accommo- dation within reasonable proximity of the work place.
🔸An expert committee should examine sector-specific pain points and make its recommendations within three months.
🔸The Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) should ensure registration of all public sector units (PSUs) on the Trade Receivables Discounting System (TREDS) portal.
🔸 Initiate a small business research programme in some select ministries for encouraging R&D in MSMEs.

✅Industry 4.0

🔸Indian Institute of Science, a few select Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National In-stitutes of Technology (NITs) and other premier engineering colleges should create specialized training programmes on ‘Smart Manufacturing’ to address the shortage of high-tech human resources.
🔸The development of industries that produce the key building blocks forming the basis of Industry 4.0 could be incentivized.

✅Ease of doing business

🔸Introduce a “single window” system in all states that provides a single point of contact between investor and government and facilitates all required licences and approvals. It should be based on stakeholder consultation.
🔸Adopt the system of using Geographic Information System (GIS) based maps at all levels to create pre-approved land banks for manufacturing facilities.
🔸 To strengthen third party certification systems, develop suitable accreditation agencies.
🔸Ensure the seamless integration of the Shram Suvidha portal and state agencies’ portals.

#NitiAayog India @ 75


#Economicsofanimalrearing #GS3

Commerce Ministry wants to build confidence in quality, antibiotic-free shrimp products from India for the global market.


◇ The Marine Products Exports Development Authority (MPEDA) has developed a certification scheme for aquaculture products called ‘Shaphari’.

◇ Shaphari - a Sanksrit word that means the superior quality of fishery products.

◇ The Shaphari scheme is based on the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization’s technical guidelines.

◇ Have two components — certifying hatcheries for the quality of their seeds and, approving shrimp farms that adopt the requisite good practices.

◇ Certification of hatcheries will help farmers identify good quality seed producers.

◇ Those who clear multiple audits of their operations shall be granted certificate for a period of two years.

◇ The entire certification process will be online to minimize human errors.

🔆Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1414 ad)

▪️Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325):

✅Founder of Tughlaq dynasty.
✅ Took title: Ghazi
✅ 1st Sultan to start Irrigation.
✅ Built a strong fort called Tughlaqabad near Delhi.
✅Amir Khusrau famous work “Tughlaq Nama” deals with the rise of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

▪️Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-1351):

✅ His reign marks the zenith of the Delhi Sultanate but also saw the beginning of disintegration.
✅He defeated Mongols.
✅Appointed official on the basis of merit.
✅Advanced secular policies. Applied justice to Ulema.
✅ Ibn-Batuta (native of Morocco) was his contemporary of Muhammad Tughlaq and was his envoy to China.
✅ He was the only Delhi Sultan who had received a comprehensive literacy, religious and philosophical
✅His ideas/decisions were ahead of his time hence he was not successful of a ruler.
✅ He Built fort of Adilabad and the city of Jahanpanah.
✅ During reign 3 major kingdoms of South India emerged: Vijayanagar, Bahamani, and Madurai.

▪️Muhammad Tughlaq’s

✅Transferred capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatadab). Shifted back after 2 years because of lack of water supply.
✅ Token Currency- Issued bronze coins at par with the value of the silver tanka
coins. He had also introduced the copper currency system. Later withdrew both.
✅He launched Khorasan project to counter the threat of Chinses incursions –Failed.
✅Quarachi expedition – launched in Kumaon hills to counter the threat of Chinses incursions – failed.
✅He set up Diwan -i- amir- kohi a separated department to extend cultivation by giving loans to cultivators (takkavi loans) – Failed due to corrupt officials.

🔆Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388):

✅Adopted policy of trying to appease the nobles, army, theologians and of asserting his authority over only such areas which could be easily administered from the center.
✅Appointed Khan-i-Jahan Maqbal, a Telugu Brahmin as Wazir or prime minister.
✅He extended the principle of heredity to the army & nobility.
✅Thus, the iqta system was not only revived, but also it was made hereditary.
✅Malik Sarwar was prominent noble and had been wazir for some time. He asserted independence and
assumed title of Malik-us-Sharq (lord of the east).
✅ Malik ruled from Jaunpur, it was called Shiraz of the east. Malik Muhammad Jaisi author of “Padmavat” lived in Jaunpur.
✅To appease theologians, Firoz took following decisions:
🔸Prohibited practice of Muslim women going out to worship.
🔸Gave concessions to theologians
🔸Made jizya a separate tax. Earlier it was part of land revenue. Only children, women, disabled exempted.
🔸Erased wall paintings in his palace
✅He constructed and improved several canals.
✅ He set up hospitals for poor called – Dar-ul-shifa.
✅Established town of Hissar and Firozabad.
✅Set up new departments:
🔸Diwan -i-Khairat - to make provisions for marriages of poor girls.
🔸Department for public work.
🔸Diwan i-Bandagan – Department for slaves
✅ Introduced 2 new coins: Adha (50% Jital) and Bitch (23% Jital).
✅He led two unsuccessful expeditions to Bengal. Bengal became free from the control of Delhi Sultanate.
✅He developed royal factories called karkhanas in which thousands of slaves were employed.
✅Imposed four taxes sanctioned by Islamic kharaj (land tax), khams (1/5 of the looted property during wars),
Jizya (religious tax on the Hindus), and Zakat (2½per cent of the income of the Muslims which was spent for
the welfare of Muslim subjects and their religion).
✅He was first Sultan to impose Sharb (irrigation tax).

▪️Nasiruddin Muhammad (1390-1398):

✅He was the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty.
✅Taimur’s invasion (1398) during his reign weakened the sultanate.
✅When Timur entered Delhi there was no opposition. He withdrew from India in 1399.
✅Delhi sultanate disintegrated towards the beginning of 15th century and no of independent states set up. E.g. Malwa and Gujarat etc.
✅Tughlaq empire came to end in 1412.

🔆LODHI DYNASTY (1451-1526 AD)

✅The Lodi dynasty was an Afghan dynasty
✅ It was the fifth and final dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi. Sikandar
Lodi succeeded him.

▪️Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517):

✅ He was contemporary of Mahmud Begarha of Gujrat and Rana Sanga of Mewar.
✅ He founded city Agra and transferred capital from Delhi to Agra.
✅He abolished the octroi duty on grains and established a new measurement of the yard called the Gaz-i-Sikandari.
✅ Sikandar was orthodox and a bigot king. he reimposed the Jizya on Hindus.
✅ He was a poet of repute, composed under the pen-name of Gulruk.
✅Sikandar Lodi was succeeded by his son Ibrahim Lodi.

▪️Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526):

✅He was the last Lodi Sultan of Delhi.
✅Ibrahim was defeated in 1526 at the Battle of Panipat.
✅He was arrogant. Humiliated his nobles in open courts, this made Daulat Khan Lodi (the governor of the Punjab) invite Babar to invade India/Delhi.
✅This marked the end of the Lodi Dynasty and the rise of the Mughal Empire in India India Under Delhi Sultanate.


▪️Brahmo Samaj (1828)

✅FOUNDER : Raja Ram Mohan
Roy in Bengal.

✅Favored: Human reason and conscience; Political upliftment of the masses, widow remarriage.
✅Against: Polytheism; Idol worship; Incarnations; Scriptural authority; Caste system, Purdah system, Untouchability, Sati, child marriage.
✅No definite view on Karma and transmigration of the soul.
✅Punjab: Dayal Singh College at Lahore (1910) started by Dayal Singh Trust, popularized the ideas of the Samaj


Topic : Polity

Borrowing Powers of the Union and the states :-

The Union shall have unlimited power of borrowing, upon the security of the revenues of India either within India or outside. The Union Executive shall exercise the power subject only to such limits as may be fixed by Parliament from time to time. (Article 292).

The borrowing power of a state is , however , subject to a number of constitutional limitations :-

a) It cannot borrow outside India. Under the Govt of India Act, 1935, the states had the power to borrow outside India with the consent of the Centre. But this power is totally denied to the states by the Constitution ; the Union shall have the sole right to enter into International monetary market in the matter of borrowing.

b) The State Executive shall have the power to borrow, within the territory of India upon the security of the revenues of the state ; subject to the following conditions.

✅ Limitations as may be imposed by the state Legislature

✅ If the Union has guaranteed an outstanding loan of the state , no fresh loan can be raised by the state without consent of the Union Government.

✅ The Govt of India may itself offer a loan to a state, under a law made by Parliament. So long as such a loan or any part thereof remains outstanding, no fresh loan can be raised by the state without the consent of the Govt of India. The Govt of India may impose terms in giving it's consent as above. (Article 293)

Topic : Modern History

Bakasht Movement :

It was a peasant movement in Bihar directed against landlords to fight forceful eviction of Peasants from Bakasht lands.

It happened in Bihar in 1937-38

The landlords often evicted the tenants from Bakasht land.

Bakshast lands were those which the occupancy tenants had lost to zamindars , mostly during the Depression years, due to non-payment of rent, and which they often continued to cultivate as share-croppers.

In 1937, when the Congress Ministry was formed, the Kisan Sabha thought that it was an appropriate time to raise the issue of bakasht and demand for restoration of bakshast lands.

The passing of the Restoration of Bakshast Land Act and the Bihar Tenancy Act in 1938 brought much relief to the peasants.

• This strait separates Iran from Oman and joins the Persian Gulf with the Arabian Sea.

• It is of great strategic importance as a waterway through which sea traffic to and from the oil-rich states of Persian Gulf must pass.

• Because of seepage and spill of oil, the Hormuz Strait is highly polluted and this has affected its marine ecosystems and life adversely.

• This is a passage separating the North and South Islands of New Zealand.

• It was discovered by Captain Cook, the famous British navigator and explorer.

• The city of Washington is located along the strait in the southern coast of the Northern Island of New Zealand.

• It is relatively calm and has less turbulent weather.

#Ancienthistory #Literarysources #GS1

◇ Buddhist literature divided into Canonical and non-canonical texts. Canonical text contain Basic tenets and principles of a religion or sect.
◇ Canonical texts classified either into 9 or 12 angas or into 3 Pitakas.
◇ There are Pali, Chinese and Tibetan version of the Tipitaka (three basket / collection ). Pali tipitaka of Theravada is oldest.
◇ Tipitaka contain three books :-
• Sutta pitaka – which contain what Buddha himself said.
• Vinaya pitaka – has rules for monks and nuns.
• Abhidhamma pitaka – later work contain thorough study and systemization of teachings of Sutta pitaka.
◇ The three pitakas divided into books knows as Nikayas . For example Sutta pitaka divided into 5 nikayas – Digha, Majjhima, samyutta, anguttara, and khuddaka nikayas.


🔏 Credit - UPSC NOTES 📗

#Artandculture #Architecture #GS1

Developed in parts of Kalinga empire.

◇ Exterior walls were lavishly decorated with carvings but interior walls plane.

◇ No use of pillar in Porch.

◇ Shikhars in the odisha school were known as Rekhadeuls.

◇ Mandaps were known as Jagmohans in this region.

◇ Ground plan of main temple was square.

◇ Temples surrounded by Boundary wall as in Dravidian style of Temple architecture.

◇ Examples -

• Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneshwar.[Top picture ]

• Jagannath temple at Puri. [Left bottom Picture]

• Sun temple at konark. [Right bottom picture]



#Artandculture #Architecture #GS1

In the central part of India, the Chandel ruler developed a distinct style of Temple making - known as Khajuraho school.

◇ Both the interior and exterior walls lavishly decorated.

◇ Scriptures generally erotic - derived inspiration from Vatsyayana's Kamasutra.

◇ Temples made of Sandstone.

◇ Temples had three chambers - Garbhagriha, mandapa and ardha - mandapa.

◇ Temples generally north or east facing.

◇ Panchayatan style of temple making was followed. Even the subsidiary shrines had rekha-prasad shikharas.

◇ Temples built on high platform.

◇ Examples :-

• Kandariya mahadeva temple. [Top picture]

• Lakshman temple of Khajuraho. [Bottom Picture]


🔆Krishi Kalyan Abhiyan

✅why in News: The Krishi Kalyan Abhiyan(KKA) is being implemented in 112 Aspirational districts of the country.

✅Launched Year: 2018

✅Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.

✅Aim:To aid, assist and advise farmers to improve their farming techniques and increase their incomes.


✅It will be implemented in 25 Villages with more than 1000 population each in Aspirational Districts identified in consultation with the Ministry of Rural Development as per directions of NITI Aayog.
✅In districts where the number of villages with more than 1000 population is less than 25, all villages will be covered

▪️ Various activities include -

1. Distribution of Soil Health Cards to all farmers
2. 100% coverage of bovine vaccination for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in each village
3. 100% coverage of Sheep and Goat for eradication of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR)
4. Distribution of Mini Kits of pulses and oilseeds to all
5. Distribution of Horticulture/Agro Forestry/Bamboo plant @5 per family (location appropriate)
6. Artificial insemination saturation
7. Demonstration program on Micro- irrigation

▪️Aspirational Districts Programme:

✅Launched Year: 2018.

✅It is coordinated by the Niti Aayog with the support from Central Ministries and the State Governments.

✅Aim: To transform districts that have shown relatively lesser progress in key social areas and have emerged as pockets of under-development.

• Tipu Sultan was born in November 1750 to Haidar Ali and Fatima. A well-educated man, he could freely converse in Arabic, Persian, Kanada, and Urdu.

• He organized his army on the European model with Persian words of command.

• Tipu was a patron of science and technology.

• He is credited as the ‘pioneer of rocket technology’ in India. He wrote a military manual explaining the operation of rockets.

• Tipu was a great lover of democracy and a great diplomat. He gave his support to the French soldiers at Seringapatam in setting up a Jacobin Club in 1797.

• Tipu himself became a member of the Jacobin Club and allowed himself to be called Citizen Tipu. He planted the Tree of Liberty at Seringapatam.
🔆Kalamkari Paintings

✅The name comes from kalam, i.e. a pen, which is used to paint these exquisite paintings.

✅The pen used is made of sharp pointed bamboo, used to regulate the flow of colours. The base is cotton fabric while the colours used are vegetable dyes.

✅The pen is soaked in a mixture of fermented jaggery and water; one by one these are applied and thereafter, the vegetable dyes are applied

✅The main centers for this art are Srikalahasti and Machilipatnam in the
State of Andhra Pradesh.

✅The images are drawn free hand and the inspiration comes from Hindu mythology.

✅Textiles with handwork are also produced here. Kalamkari painting had its existence even during Vijayanagara empire

✅ It has received GI status.

✅The religion is based upon the teachings, life experiences of its founder Siddhartha Gautam, born in circa 563 BCE.
✅ Buddha asked his followers to avoid the two extremes of indulgence in worldly pleasure and the practice of strict abstinence and asceticism.
✅He ascribed instead the 'Madhyam Marg' or the middle path which was to be followed.

(563 BC-483 BC)

✅He is also known as Siddharta, Sakyamuni & Tathagata
✅Belong to Sakya Clan
✅ Father: Siddhodana
✅ Mother: Mayadevi
✅ Birth Place: Lumbini, capital of Sakya republic
✅Teachers: Alarakama and UdrakaRamputra
✅Enlightenment: At age of 33 under Pipal tree at Uruvella (Bodhgaya) on banks of river Niranjana (Falgu).
✅First Sermon: Sarnath (Deer park) on Dharma Chakra Parivarthana to 5 disciples
including Mahakasyapa (first disciple)
✅Mahaparinirvana: At Kushinagar at age of 80.


✅ Ceylonese Chronicles - MAHAVAMSA by Mahanama, DEPAVAMSA and ATTAKATHA
by Wattagamani.
✅TRIPITAKA/ Three baskets of Buddhist scripture -
✅SUTTAPITAKA [sutra related to Buddha and companion]
✅ VINAYPITAKA [monastic rules] and
✅ABHIDHAMPITAKA [Doctrine and philosophy of Buddhism]
✅JATAKA FOLKLORE [stories related to birth of Buddha]/ In Chinese they are called SADOK.
✅MILINDAPANHA [Questions of Milinda that is greek king Meander and answers of
Buddhist monk nagasena]

✅Buddha, Dhamma & Sangha.


✅ The oldest prayer place in history where slaves, Insolvents, and diseased were not allowed.
✅There were 64 types of crimes called Pathimokshas, which were prohibited
✅ Women were also allowed to join.


✅MOGGALIPUTTA TISSA – launched ASHOKA’S dhamma campaign
✅ASVAGOSHA- wrote BUDDHACHARITA and Sanskrit drama SARIPUTRA PRAKRAN [sariputra the disciple of Buddha]
✅ NAGARJUNA - Founded madhyamik school of mahayanbuddism, gave theory of SUNYAVAD’ EMPTINESS’ and important work include ‘MULAMADHYAMAKAKARIKA’
✅BUDDHAGOSH - most important commentator of Theravada, important work is VISUDDIMAGGA.
✅DHARMAKIRTI - Teacher at Nalanda, called as ‘kant of india’


1. Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar
2. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, MP
3. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, Bihar
4. Ajanta Caves Aurangabad, Maharashtra

NOTE: Heritage City Development Scheme (HRIDAY) and identification of 3 Buddhist circuits are some of the few initiatives by central government to harness the Buddhist pilgrims to both augment the Tourism and employment opportunities.


👩‍⚕️ Dr. Kadambini Ganguly, the first woman to be trained as a physician in India.

👩‍⚕️ Ganguly was also the first woman to get admission to Calcutta Medical College, from which she graduated in 1886.

👩‍⚕️ Today’s Google doodle, illustrated by Bengaluru- based guest artist Oddrija, marks the occasion of Ganguly’s 160th birthday and sheds light on her exemplary work to uplift Indian women throughout the country.

👩‍⚕️ Ganguly was also one of the six women to form the first all-women delegation of the 1889 Indian National Congress.

👩‍⚕️ The 2020 “Prothoma Kadambini” biographical television series based on Ganguly’s life reinvigorated her legacy by telling her inspirational story to a new generation.

👩‍⚕️ She worked through both medical service and activism in India’s women’s rights movement.